M&E Sourcebook: Introduction

A typology of disaster risk reduction projects and programmes


Disaster risk reduction (DRR) involves the development of policies and practices to minimise vulnerability to hazard.

Disaster Risk Reduction Frameworks

The ISDR framework:

Delegates at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in January 2005 adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters'. The Hyogo Framework for Action provides a systematic approach to reducing vulnerabilities. The HFA identifies 5 Priorities for Action to reduce disaster risk:

  1. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation.
  2. Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning.
  3. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels.
  4. Reduce the underlying risk factors.
  5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

Mainstreaming frameworks:

Since the late 1990s, there has been increasing recognition of the need to "mainstream" disaster risk reduction into development - that is, to consider and address risks emanating from natural hazards in medium-term strategic frameworks and institutional structures, in country and sectoral strategies and policies and in the design of individual projects in hazard-prone countries.

Examples: Mainstreaming in PRSPs

An increasing number of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) explicitly recognize that natural hazards and related vulnerability play a role in determining forms and levels of poverty and in influencing broader macroeconomic performance. Over fifteen of them include related disaster risk management measures. However, these measures are typically very narrowly and traditionally conceived. See Guidance Note 3: Poverty Reduction Strategies.

Other approaches:

Projects/programmes which typically fall outside the ISDR and other frameworks include sectoral interventions, cross-cutting issues (e.g. gender), and other approaches, for example the sustainable livelihoods approach. The sustainable livelihoods approach (SL) is a way of organising data and analysis, or a "lens" through which to view development interventions. By giving prominence to vulnerability and external shocks, SL approaches provide good opportunities for including hazard and disaster awareness in project planning. See Guidance Note 10: Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches.

For a more detailed discussion of vulnerability and its relationship to hazards, see Guidance Note 9: Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis.

Actors in DRR

The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-1015 calls for actions by all stakeholders in disaster reduction to achieve the goals and priorities adopted at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in January 2005. The disaster community comprises people from very different organisations, such as governments (at all levels), regional organisations, NGOs and other civil society organisations, multi-lateral organisations, academics, consultants, military agencies and private sector interests of various kinds. All of these have a role to play in reducing risk - together, of course, with vulnerable communities, who are the main actors in mitigation and response at the local level.

Further reading and website resources

  • Britton, N. (2001) 'A new emergency management for the new millennium?' Australian Journal of Emergency Management 16 (4) pp.44-54.
  • Quarantelli, E. (2000) Disaster planning, emergency management and civil protection: the historical development of organized efforts to plan for and to respond to disasters. Preliminary Paper 301. University of Delaware Disaster Research Center, Newark.

    Available at: www.udel.edu/DRC/preliminary/pp301.pdf

  • ISDR (2002) Living with Risk: A Global View of Disaster Reduction Initiatives. UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva.